The Gulf …

While all three countries were monarchies, only Iran and Iraq had functioning parliaments, parties, and unions. Populist politics, which emphasized inclusion and redistribution, gained ground in both places after World War II, culminating in the famous nationalization of Anglo-Persian in 1951…and revolution in Iraq in 1958. Conditions for the nascent Saudi labor movement and the relative handful of officials who sought to move Saudi Arabia in a more inclusive and redistributive direction were, to understate the obstacle of absolute rule, inauspicious, and the firm there had a freer hand to deflect, ignore, and counter demands for fairness and human capital development.

This comes from a new book on Aramco, the United States, and state formation in Saudi Arabia. See this new web site for similar discussion. It seems to have a lot of potential, although it is, perhaps, for some a bit too academic a la americaine … Enjoy …

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